JUDO

Judo meaning "gentle way" is a modern martial art, combat and Olympic sport. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons, defenses are a part of judo.A judo practitioner is called a judoka.


Instructor In-Charge:

Sagar Koli
Piyush K. Sadawarte

Judo waza (techniques)


There are three basic categories of techniques in judo: throwing techniques, grappling techniques and striking techniques. Judo is most known for throwing and grappling techniques.


Judo practitioners typically devote a portion of each practice session to ukemi ( break-falls), in order that throwing techniques can be practiced without significant risk of injury. Several distinct types of ukemi exist, including ushiro ukemi (rear breakfalls); yoko ukemi (side breakfalls); mae ukemi (front breakfalls); and zenpo kaiten ukemi (rolling breakfalls).


The person who performs a Waza is known as tori ( literally "taker") and the person to whom it is performed is known as uke ( literally "receiver").


throwing techniques


throwing techniques include all techniques in which tori attempts to throw or trip uke, usually with the aim of placing uke on his back. Each technique has three distinct stages:


• Kuzushi , the initial balance break;


• Tsukuri , the act of turning in and fitting into the throw;


• Kake, the execution and completion of the throw.


Throwing techniques are typically drilled by the use of uchi komi , repeated turning-in, taking the throw up to the point of kake.


Traditionally, throwing techniques are further categorised into , standing techniques, throws that are performed with tori maintaining an upright position, and sacrifice techniques), throws in which tori sacrifices his upright position in order to throw uke.

Standing techniques are further subdivided into hand techniques, in which tori predominantly uses his arms to throw uke; hip techniques throws that predominantly use a lifting motion from the hips; and ashi-waza foot and leg techniques, throws in which tori predominantly utilises his legs.


Throwing technique divided into two parts:


1. Standing techniques


2. Sacrifice techniques


Standing techniques further divided into three forms:


1. Hand techniques


2. Hip techniques


3. Foot and leg techniques


Sacrifice techniques is further divided into two forms:


1. Rear sacrifice techniques


2. Front sacrifice techniques


grappling techniques


grappling techniques is further categorised into holding techniques, in which tori traps and pins uke on his back on the floor; strangulation techniques, in which tori attempts to force a submission by choking or strangling uke; and joint techniques, in which tori attempts to submit uke by painful manipulation of his joints.


A related concept is that of prone techniques, in which waza are applied from a non-standing position.


In competitive judo, joint techniques(locks) is currently limited to elbow joint manipulation.


Grappling techniques is divided into three forms


:

1. Holding/pinning techniques


2. Strangulation techniques


3. Joint techniques i.e locks.


striking techniques


striking techniques are techniques in which tori disables uke with a strike to a vital point. this techniques are not permitted outside of kata.


Competition scoring


A throw that places the opponent on his back with impetus and control scores an ippon , winning the contest. A lesser throw, where the opponent is thrown onto his back, but with insufficient force to merit an ippon, scores a waza-ari. Two scores of waza-ari equal an ippon ( waza-ari awasete ippon?) A throw that places the opponent onto his side scores a yuko . No amount of yukos equal a waza-ari, they are only considered in the event of an otherwise tied contest.


Ippon is scored in ne-waza for pinning an opponent on his back with a recognised osaekomi-waza for 20 seconds or by forcing a submission through strangulation or joint techniques. A submission is signalled by tapping the mat or the opponent at least twice with the hand or foot, or by saying maitta( I surrender). A pin lasting for less than 20 seconds, but more than 15 seconds scores waza-ari and one lasting less than 15 seconds but more than 10 seconds scores a yuko.


Formerly, there was an additional score that was lesser to yuko, that of Koka . This has since been removed.